so my cousin wrote her letter to santa
Thanks goes to the-science-llama for calling my attention
Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors
Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias
Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors. (via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)
This post is really misleading and explains it in a way that’s far from the truth about what’s really (possibly) happening. The future generations aren’t getting “memories”, but rather, an inherited sensitivity of sorts.
Note: In the quote below, F1 refers to the first generation of offspring from the parent taught to fear the smell, and F2 is the second generation.
from National Geographic:
The scientists then looked at the F1 and F2 animals’ brains. When the grandparent generation is trained to fear acetophenone, the F1 and F2 generations’ noses end up with more “M71 neurons,” which contain a receptor that detects acetophenone. Their brains also have larger “M71 glomeruli,” a region of the olfactory bulb that responds to this smell.
This is far from a memory.
We’ve identified a few forms of epigenetic inheritance—primarily chemical modifications of DNA—that can be changed during the life of an organism but can still be passed down to its progeny.
Mice can be taught to fear the smell of a specific odorant simply by giving them electric shocks whenever they’re exposed to it. It’s then simple to read out the strength of this through a startle response. When they hear a loud noise, mice tend to freeze for a short period of time. If you hit them with both a loud noise and the odor they fear, they’ll freeze for even longer.
Rather than testing the mice themselves, however, the researchers decided to test their offspring. And they found that mice in the next generation, as well as the generation after that, also showed an enhanced startle effect when exposed to the same chemical. They ruled out the simplest explanation for this—researcher bias—by making sure that the person measuring the response was blinded to whether the mouse they were testing was an experimental animal or a control.
And, in an even more concise way to say it’s not a memory, nor is it a phobia per se,
In other words, the parental exposure and training seemed to prime offspring to be able to perceive the odor much more easily.
So, yes, while this is an amazing scientific discovery—if further research confirms these findings—it’s a far more subtle biological change that’s occurring. The results show that it’s sensory sensitivity to a stimulus that’s being passed down, and that’s a pretty big leap from memories, phobias and “inherited experiences of their ancestors.”
This is what I was thinking too. The mice were just being trained to be more sensitive to the odors, by up-regulating certain odor-receptors, allowing them to have a better/faster reaction to what they perceived to be a ‘bad smell’. Like how we humans do not like the smell of rotten eggs, or Hydrogen Sulfide, because we have a sensitivity to it since it is toxic.
Very far from Assassin’s Creed (so stop with that AC-hype BS) and really any phobias like fear of clowns or spiders and some people were saying it explained Islamophobia (ridiculous!). Those are a result of the brain interpreting visual stimulus and gene regulation has very little influence in something like that. — Your eyes can’t tell the difference between a photon that bounced off a spider or an Islamic person. — Those phobias are more a result of your childhood upbringing and how society framed them for you, causing certain neural pathways to be reinforced, leading to the phobia.
Homestuck AU where everyone wears the exact opposite color of what they wear in canon.
YOU CROSSED AN UNCROSSABLE LINE
reblog if you want a relationship like this
this show is gold
We will meet again (x)
Every single time this appears on my dash, it rips my fucking soul to pieces.
I didn’t need my heart anyways
“At the height of his cocaine addiction, David Bowie weighed only 95 pounds, hardly a healthy weight for 5’11”. He later said that he spent most of the mid-Seventies trying to perfect telekinesis and trying to keep Jimmy Page and witches from stealing his soul.”
trying to keep Jimmy Page and witches from stealing his soul
Slow down Katniss by 25% and what do you get? Will Ferrell.
OH MY GOD WHAT
Oh my lord.
the fuck is this shit
The funniest shit EVER
I’d watch it
"My body, my choice" only makes sense when someone else’s life isn’t at stake.
Fun fact: If my younger sister was in a car accident and desperately needed a blood transfusion to live, and I was the only person on Earth who could donate blood to save her, and even though donating blood is a relatively easy, safe, and quick procedure no one can force me to give blood. Yes, even to save the life of a fully grown person, it would be ILLEGAL to FORCE me to donate blood if I didn’t want to.
See, we have this concept called “bodily autonomy.” It’s this….cultural notion that a person’s control over their own body is above all important and must not be infringed upon.
Like, we can’t even take LIFE SAVING organs from CORPSES unless the person whose corpse it is gave consent before their death. Even corpses get bodily autonomy.
To tell people that they MUST sacrifice their bodily autonomy for 9 months against their will in an incredibly expensive, invasive, difficult process to save what YOU view as another human life (a debatable claim in the early stages of pregnancy when the VAST majority of abortions are performed) is desperately unethical. You can’t even ask people to sacrifice bodily autonomy to give up organs they aren’t using anymore after they have died.
You’re asking people who can become pregnant to accept less bodily autonomy than we grant to dead bodies.